Lighting Theory

Lighting the 4th dimension of Architecture

Lighting is often regarded as the fourth dimension of architecture, playing a transformative role in shaping our perception of built environments.

Just as height, width, and depth define the physical structure of a space, lighting adds the dimension of time and mood. It has the power to accentuate architectural details, create focal points, and set the ambiance. Skillful lighting design can make a space feel cozy and intimate, or open and expansive. It can guide our movement through a building, enhance its functionality, and even evoke emotions.

In this way, lighting goes beyond mere illumination; it becomes an integral part of the architectural narrative, enhancing the aesthetics and functionality of a space, and making it truly come alive.

Main Components of LED Lighting

Here are essential parts that contribute to the efficiency and functionality of an LED light.

LED Light Source

The heart of an LED light is the LED (Light Emitting Diode) itself. LEDs are semiconductor devices that emit light when an electrical current passes through them. LED technology is highly efficient, long-lasting, and produces bright, white light.

LED Driver

LED drivers are electronic components that regulate the electrical current supplied to the LEDs. They ensure that the LEDs operate at their optimal voltage and current levels. LED drivers also play a crucial role in dimming and controlling the brightness of the street light.

Heat Sink

LEDs produce heat during operation, and a heat sink is used to dissipate this heat to maintain the LED's temperature within safe limits. Proper heat management is essential to ensure the longevity and performance of the LED.

Optical Lens

An optical lens or reflector is used to control the distribution of light emitted by the LED. It helps direct the light where it is needed, such as onto the road, minimizing light spillage and wastage.

Fixture Housing

The fixture housing or casing encloses and protects the internal components of the light from environmental factors like rain, dust, and extreme temperatures. It is usually made from durable materials like aluminum.

Photocell or Motion Sensor

Many LED lights are equipped with photocells or motion sensors to automatically control the lighting based on ambient light levels or detected motion. This feature helps save energy by turning the lights on and off when needed.

How we do it?

Our transformative approach to lighting spaces is rooted in scientific principles, ensuring innovative and effective solutions.

Lux is a measure of illuminance or the amount of light that falls on a surface.

LED lighting fixtures are designed to provide specific lux levels for various applications, ensuring appropriate brightness for tasks or ambiance in different spaces.

LED (Light Emitting Diode)

LEDs are semiconductor devices that emit light when an electric current passes through them.

LEDs are highly energy-efficient, have a long lifespan, and are a popular choice for lighting due to their durability and versatility.

Power Factor

Power factor is a measure of how efficiently electrical power is converted into useful light in LED fixtures.

A high power factor (close to 1) indicates efficient energy usage, which is important for reducing electricity costs and minimizing energy waste in LED lighting systems.

CRI (Color Rendering Index)

CRI is a metric that measures how accurately a light source renders colors compared to natural sunlight.

LEDs often have a high CRI, providing vibrant and true-to-life colors in the illuminated environment. A CRI value of 80 or above is typically considered good for general lighting.


LED lighting is known for its energy efficiency, with lower wattage compared to traditional incandescent or fluorescent lighting for the same level of illumination.

LEDs produce more lumens (brightness) per watt consumed, resulting in cost savings and reduced energy consumption.

Color Temperature

Color temperature refers to the warmth or coolness of the light emitted by LED fixtures, measured in Kelvins (K).

LEDs come in various color temperatures, ranging from warm white (e.g., 2700K) to cool white (e.g., 5000K).

Are you choosing the Right Lights?

Choosing the right lighting for your space involves considering various factors to ensure that it meets both functional and aesthetic needs. Here’s a step-by-step guide to help you make the right lighting choices

Power saving concept. Asia man changing compact-fluorescent (CFL) bulbs with new LED light bulb.
Identify the Purpose

Determine the primary purpose of the space. Is it for general illumination, task lighting, ambient lighting, or accent lighting? Different areas may require different types of lighting.

Natural Light
Consider Natural Light

Take into account the amount of natural light the space receives. Spaces with ample natural light may require less artificial lighting during the day, while those with limited natural light may need more.

Determine Light Intensity
Determine Light Intensity

Assess the level of brightness needed for the space. Factors such as room size, function, and personal preference will influence the intensity of lighting required.

Fast Support Response
Fast Support Response

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Color Temperature
Mind the Color Temperature

Choose the right color temperature for your lighting, which affects the ambiance. Warmer tones (2700-3000K) create a cozy atmosphere, while cooler tones (4000-5000K) provide a brighter, more energetic feel.

Energy Efficiency
Energy Efficiency

To save energy and reduce costs, consider LED or CFL bulbs, which are energy-efficient and have a longer lifespan compared to traditional incandescent bulbs.

Control and Dimming
Control and Dimming

Consider installing dimmer switches or smart lighting systems that allow you to adjust the light levels to suit different activities and times of day.

BANGKOK, THAILAND - AUGUST 12 2016: Beautiful luxury living room interior decoration in Hotel
Layer Lighting

Create depth and versatility in your lighting by using multiple layers, including ambient, task, and accent lighting. This approach provides flexibility and enhances the overall lighting scheme.

Test and Adjust
Test and Adjust

Once you've installed the lighting, test it out and make any necessary adjustments. Ensure that the lighting meets your needs and enhances the functionality and aesthetics of the space.

Seek Professional Advice
Seek Professional Advice

For complex lighting projects or if you're unsure about your choices, consult with a lighting designer or an electrician who specializes in lighting to ensure optimal results.

Types of Lighting

Step into the vibrant realm of illumination as we explore various forms of Lighting.

Ambient Lighting

Ambient lighting provides overall illumination to a space. It ensures that there is enough light for general activities and creates a comfortable and inviting atmosphere. This type of lighting can be achieved with fixtures such as chandeliers, ceiling-mounted lights, or recessed fixtures.

Task Lighting

Task lighting is designed to provide focused and localized illumination for specific activities like reading, cooking or working. Examples include desk lamps, under-cabinet lights, and pendant lights placed above kitchen islands.

Accent Lighting

Accent lighting is used to highlight specific features, objects, or architectural elements within a space. It adds drama and visual interest, drawing attention to artwork, sculptures, or textured walls. Common fixtures for accent lighting include track lights, wall sconces, and spotlights.

Decorative Lighting

Decorative lighting serves both a functional and aesthetic purpose. These fixtures are often chosen for their visual appeal and can become focal points in a room. Examples include ornate chandeliers, pendant lights with intricate designs, and decorative wall fixtures.

Types of Color Temperature

Color temperature is a scale used to measure the color appearance of light sources, particularly the warmth or coolness of white light.
It is typically expressed in Kelvins (K).

Here’s a general overview of the color temperature scale in lighting:

Lighting Simulations

Lighting simulations are invaluable tools in the world of design and architecture. They allow professionals to visualize and assess how various lighting schemes will affect the atmosphere and functionality of a space before implementation.

Through detailed computer-generated models, these simulations replicate the interplay of light, shadows, and colors within an environment, helping designers fine-tune the placement, intensity, and color temperature of fixtures to achieve optimal results.

By offering a preview of lighting effects, simulations save time, reduce costs, and enable the creation of captivating, energy-efficient, and comfortable spaces tailored to specific needs and preferences.

Recommended Illumination Levels for Residential Space

The list provided below includes IES recommended lighting levels for various industrial and commercial spaces, presenting these recommendations in terms of average foot-candles and lux values. Both foot-candles and lux are measurements indicating the amount of light that reaches a surface. Lux is defined as lumens per square meter, while foot-candles represent lumens per square foot. A lumen is a unit of measurement used to quantify the amount of light emitted by a bulb or fixture.
Living Room330
Kitchen General9100
Kitchen Stove/Cooktop28300
Kitchen-Prep Counters47500
Dining Informal9100
Dining-Room Reading/Writing19100
Garage Vehicle Bays20200
Garage Workbench931000
Laundry Room19200
Basement Rec Room14150

Recommended Illumination Levels for Commercial Space

The list provided below includes IES recommended lighting levels for various industrial and commercial spaces,
presenting these recommendations in terms of average foot-candles and lux values.
Large Items10108
Small Items30323
Kitchen-Prep Counters
Private or open40431
Conference Room30323
Break Room15162
Assembly – Large Items30323
Assembly – Detailed1001076
Covered Parking554
Urban Parking1.516
Suburban Parking111
Exterior Building111
Gas Station Canopy12.5135
Department Store40431
Department Store40431
Displays3-10x greater than ambient

How We Approach a Project

Akarui LED Lighting’s expertise ensures that each step is executed flawlessly, delivering exceptional lighting solutions.

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Contact Us For Our Products & Services

Ready to brighten your space? Contact Akarui LED Lighting today and let’s illuminate your vision together. Your lighting journey starts here.